Review of: Spock

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On 08.06.2020
Last modified:08.06.2020

Summary:

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Spock

S.P.O.C.K (kurz für Star Pilot on Channel K, ehemals Space Pioneers Orbiting Ceti K) ist eine Synthpop-Band aus Schweden. Viele Lieder der Band haben. Spock ist eine fiktive Figur im Star Trek-Medien-Franchise. Spock, der ursprünglich von Leonard Nimoy gespielt wurde, erschien zuerst in der ursprünglichen Star Trek-Serie, die an Bord des Raumschiffs. Many translated example sentences containing "Spock" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations.

Spock Hauptnavigation

Spock ist eine fiktive Figur im Star Trek-Medien-Franchise. Spock, der ursprünglich von Leonard Nimoy gespielt wurde, erschien zuerst in der ursprünglichen Star Trek-Serie, die an Bord des Raumschiffs. In der letzten Szene, nachdem wir den Frieden in jener Welt gesichert haben, sagt Kirk zu Spock, er werde immer menschlicher. Spock denkt darüber nach. S.P.O.C.K (kurz für Star Pilot on Channel K, ehemals Space Pioneers Orbiting Ceti K) ist eine Synthpop-Band aus Schweden. Viele Lieder der Band haben. Spock steht für: Spock (Star-Trek), fiktive Person im Star-Trek-Universum, siehe Figuren im Star-Trek-Universum #Commander Spock · () Mr. Spock. Spock ist der Sohn des berühmten vulkanischen Botschafters Sarek und dessen menschlicher Frau. Spock:»Captain! Heute nachmittag wollten Sie töten. Das ist doch richtig, nicht wahr?«McCoy:»Aber er hat es nicht, Mr. Spock.«Spock:»Aber er wollte, Doktor​. Kaufe und Verkaufe in deiner Nähe!

Spock

Buy Spock und ich: Mein Freund Leonard Nimoy by Shatner, William, Fisher, David, Wais, Johanna (ISBN: ) from Amazon's Book Store. Spock darüber. Dieser begibt sich daraufhin zum echten Captain Kirk und spricht mit ihm. Kirk meint, dass McCoy ihn wohl hereingelegt habe. Daraufhin bittet. Spock ist eine fiktive Figur im Star Trek-Medien-Franchise. Spock, der ursprünglich von Leonard Nimoy gespielt wurde, erschien zuerst in der ursprünglichen Star Trek-Serie, die an Bord des Raumschiffs.

A typical specification uses only a subset of them. A specification is represented as a Groovy class that extends from spock.

The name of a specification usually relates to the system or system operation described by the specification.

Class Specification contains a number of useful methods for writing specifications. It is good practice to initialize them right at the point of declaration.

Semantically, this is equivalent to initializing them at the very beginning of the setup method. Objects stored into instance fields are not shared between feature methods.

Instead, every feature method gets its own object. This helps to isolate feature methods from each other, which is often a desirable goal.

Sometimes you need to share an object between feature methods. For example, the object might be very expensive to create, or you might want your feature methods to interact with each other.

To achieve this, declare a Shared field. Semantically, this is equivalent to initializing the field at the very beginning of the setupSpec method.

Static fields should only be used for constants. Otherwise shared fields are preferable, because their semantics with respect to sharing are more well-defined.

Fixture methods are responsible for setting up and cleaning up the environment in which feature methods are run.

Occasionally it makes sense for feature methods to share a fixture, which is achieved by using shared fields together with the setupSpec and cleanupSpec methods.

Note that setupSpec and cleanupSpec may not reference instance fields unless they are annotated with Shared.

If fixture methods are overridden in a specification subclass then setup of the superclass will run before setup of the subclass.

There is no need to explicitly call super. Feature methods are the heart of a specification. They describe the features properties, aspects that you expect to find in the system under specification.

By convention, feature methods are named with String literals. Try to choose good names for your feature methods, and feel free to use any characters you like!

Whereas the first and last phases are optional, the stimulus and response phases are always present except in interacting feature methods , and may occur more than once.

Spock has built-in support for implementing each of the conceptual phases of a feature method. To this end, feature methods are structured into so-called blocks.

Blocks start with a label, and extend to the beginning of the next block, or the end of the method. There are six kinds of blocks: given , when , then , expect , cleanup , and where blocks.

Any statements between the beginning of the method and the first explicit block belong to an implicit given block. A feature method must have at least one explicit i.

Blocks divide a method into distinct sections, and cannot be nested. The picture on the right shows how blocks map to the conceptual phases of a feature method.

The where block has a special role, which will be revealed shortly. The given block is where you do any setup work for the feature that you are describing.

It may not be preceded by other blocks, and may not be repeated. The given: label is optional and may be omitted, resulting in an implicit given block.

Originally, the alias setup: was the preferred block name, but using given: often leads to a more readable feature method description see Specifications as Documentation.

The when and then blocks always occur together. They describe a stimulus and the expected response.

Whereas when blocks may contain arbitrary code, then blocks are restricted to conditions , exception conditions , interactions , and variable definitions.

A feature method may contain multiple pairs of when-then blocks. However, conditions are written as plain boolean expressions, eliminating the need for an assertion API.

More precisely, a condition may also produce a non-boolean value, which will then be evaluated according to Groovy truth. What kind of feedback does Spock provide if a condition is violated?

Here is what we get:. As you can see, Spock captures all values produced during the evaluation of a condition, and presents them in an easily digestible form.

Conditions are an essential ingredient of then blocks and expect blocks. Except for calls to void methods and expressions classified as interactions, all top-level expressions in these blocks are implicitly treated as conditions.

If an explicit condition is violated, it will produce the same nice diagnostic message as an implicit condition.

Exception conditions are used to describe that a when block should throw an exception. They are defined using the thrown method, passing along the expected exception type.

For example, to describe that popping from an empty stack should throw an EmptyStackException , you could write the following:. As you can see, exception conditions may be followed by other conditions and even other blocks.

This is particularly useful for specifying the expected content of an exception. To access the exception, first bind it to a variable:. This syntax has two small advantages: First, the exception variable is strongly typed, making it easier for IDEs to offer code completion.

Second, the condition reads a bit more like a sentence "then an EmptyStackException is thrown". Note that if no exception type is passed to the thrown method, it is inferred from the variable type on the left-hand side.

Sometimes we need to convey that an exception should not be thrown. Did someone just leave the building before he had finished implementing this method?

After all, where are the conditions? Fortunately, we can do better:. By using notThrown , we make it clear that in particular a NullPointerException should not be thrown.

As per the contract of Map. However, the method will also fail if any other exception is thrown. Interactions and Interaction based testing are described in a separate chapter , so we only give a quick example here.

Suppose we want to describe the flow of events from a publisher to its subscribers. Here is the code:. An expect block is more limited than a then block in that it may only contain conditions and variable definitions.

It is useful in situations where it is more natural to describe stimulus and expected response in a single expression.

For example, compare the following two attempts to describe the Math. Although both snippets are semantically equivalent, the second one is clearly preferable.

As a guideline, use when-then to describe methods with side effects, and expect to describe purely functional methods.

A cleanup block may only be followed by a where block, and may not be repeated. Like a cleanup method, it is used to free any resources used by a feature method, and is run even if a previous part of the feature method has produced an exception.

As a consequence, a cleanup block must be coded defensively; in the worst case, it must gracefully handle the situation where the first statement in a feature method has thrown an exception, and all local variables still have their default values.

More coarse-grained specifications, however, might use a cleanup block to clean up the file system, close a database connection, or shut down a network service.

A where block always comes last in a method, and may not be repeated. It is used to write data-driven feature methods.

To give you an idea how this is done, have a look at the following example:. This where block effectively creates two "versions" of the feature method: One where a is 5, b is 1, and c is 5, and another one where a is 3, b is 9, and c is 9.

Although it is declared last, the where block is evaluated before the feature method containing it runs. The where block is further explained in the Data Driven Testing chapter.

In such cases it can make sense to introduce one or more helper methods. If you happen to be a computer geek, your preferred PC configuration might be very detailed, or you might want to compare offers from many different shops.

The new helper method matchesPreferredConfiguration consists of a single boolean expression whose result is returned.

The return keyword is optional in Groovy. This is fine except for the way that an inadequate offer is now presented:. When factoring out conditions into a helper method, two points need to be considered: First, implicit conditions must be turned into explicit conditions with the assert keyword.

Second, the helper method must have return type void. Otherwise, Spock might interpret the return value as a failing condition, which is not what we want.

Be aware that the use of fixture and helper methods can increase the coupling between feature methods. If you reuse too much or the wrong code, you will end up with specifications that are fragile and hard to evolve.

As an alternative to the above helper methods, you can use a with target, closure method to interact on the object being verified. This is especially useful in then and expect blocks.

Unlike when you use helper methods, there is no need for explicit assert statements for proper error reporting. When verifying mocks, a with statement can also cut out verbose verification statements.

Sometimes an IDE as trouble to determine the type of the target, in that case you can help out by manually specifying the target type via with target, type, closure.

Normal expectations fail the test on the first failed assertions. Sometimes it is helpful to collect these failures before failing the test to have more information, this behavior is also known as soft assertions.

Well-written specifications are a valuable source of information. Especially for higher-level specifications targeting a wider audience than just developers architects, domain experts, customers, etc.

Therefore, Spock provides a way to attach textual descriptions to blocks:. In Behavior Driven Development, customer-facing features called stories are described in a given-when-then format.

Spock directly supports this style of specification with the given: label:. Block descriptions are not only present in source code, but are also available to the Spock runtime.

Planned usages of block descriptions are enhanced diagnostic messages, and textual reports that are equally understood by all stakeholders.

As we have seen, Spock offers lots of functionality for writing specifications. However, there always comes a time when something else is needed.

Therefore, Spock provides an interception-based extension mechanism. Extensions are activated by annotations called directives.

Currently, Spock ships with the following directives:. Any feature method carrying this annotation will be executed, all others will be ignored.

Useful for quickly running just a single method. Expects a feature method to complete abruptly. FailsWith has two use cases: First, to document known bugs that cannot be resolved immediately.

Second, to replace exception conditions in certain corner cases where the latter cannot be used like specifying the behavior of exception conditions.

In all other cases, exception conditions are preferable. Go to the Extensions chapter to learn how to implement your own directives and extensions.

Although Spock uses a different terminology, many of its concepts and features are inspired by JUnit. Here is a rough comparison:.

Oftentimes, it is useful to exercise the same test code multiple times, with varying inputs and expected results. In order to exercise the same code multiple times, it either has to be duplicated or extracted into a separate method.

Exercising the same code multiple times does not benefit from the same isolation as executing separate methods does. First, we introduce three method parameters called data variables that replace the hard-coded integer values:.

We have finished the test logic, but still need to supply the data values to be used. This is done in a where: block, which always comes at the end of the method.

In the simplest and most common case, the where: block holds a data table. The first line of the table, called the table header , declares the data variables.

The subsequent lines, called table rows , hold the corresponding values. For each row, the feature method will get executed once; we call this an iteration of the method.

If an iteration fails, the remaining iterations will nevertheless be executed. All failures will be reported.

Iterations are isolated from each other in the same way as separate feature methods. Each iteration gets its own instance of the specification class, and the setup and cleanup methods will be called before and after each iteration, respectively.

In order to share an object between iterations, it has to be kept in a Shared or static field. Note that such objects will also be shared with other methods.

There is currently no good way to share an object just between iterations of the same method. If you consider this a problem, consider putting each method into a separate spec, all of which can be kept in the same file.

This achieves better isolation at the cost of some boilerplate code. The previous code can be tweaked in a few ways. First, since the where: block already declares all data variables, the method parameters can be omitted.

With this, the code becomes:. The obvious question is: Which iteration failed, and what are its data values? At other times this can be more difficult or even impossible.

This is the purpose of the Unroll annotation. Another reason is that Unroll can drastically change the number of reported tests, which may not always be desirable.

Note that unrolling has no effect on how the method gets executed; it is only an alternation in reporting. Depending on the execution environment, the output will look something like:.

This tells us that the second iteration with index 1 failed. With a bit of effort, we can do even better:. This method name uses placeholders, denoted by a leading hash sign , to refer to data variables a , b , and c.

In the output, the placeholders will be replaced with concrete values:. Now we can tell at a glance that the max method failed for inputs 7 and 4.

See More on Unrolled Method Names for further details on this topic. The Unroll annotation can also be placed on a spec. This has the same effect as placing it on each data-driven feature method of the spec.

In fact, a data table is just syntactic sugar for one or more data pipes :. The data provider holds all values for the variable, one per iteration.

Any object that Groovy knows how to iterate over can be used as a data provider. This includes objects of type Collection , String , Iterable , and objects implementing the Iterable contract.

Data providers are queried for their next value only when needed before the next iteration. If a data provider returns multiple values per iteration as an object that Groovy knows how to iterate over , it can be connected to multiple data variables simultaneously.

The syntax is somewhat similar to Groovy multi-assignment but uses brackets instead of parentheses on the left-hand side:.

Assignments are re-evaluated for every iteration. As already shown above, the right-hand side of an assignment may refer to other data variables:.

The number of iterations depends on how much data is available. Successive executions of the same method can yield different numbers of iterations.

If a data provider runs out of values sooner than its peers, an exception will occur. A where: block that only contains assignments yields exactly one iteration.

After all iterations have completed, the zero-argument close method is called on all data providers that have such a method. An unrolled method name is similar to a Groovy GString , except for the following differences:.

Given a class Person with properties name and age , and a data variable person of type Person , the following are valid method names:.

Non-string values like person above are converted to Strings according to Groovy semantics. Focusing on the behavior of objects rather than their state, it explores how the object s under specification interact, by way of method calls, with their collaborators.

How are we going to test Publisher? With state-based testing, we can verify that the publisher keeps track of its subscribers.

The more interesting question, though, is whether a message sent by the publisher is received by the subscribers. To answer this question, we need a special implementation of Subscriber that listens in on the conversation between the publisher and its subscribers.

Such an implementation is called a mock object. While we could certainly create a mock implementation of Subscriber by hand, writing and maintaining this code can get unpleasant as the number of methods and complexity of interactions increases.

This is where mocking frameworks come in: They provide a way to describe the expected interactions between an object under specification and its collaborators, and can generate mock implementations of collaborators that verify these expectations.

Compared to implementations based on Groovy meta-programming, this has the advantage that it also works for testing Java code. The Java world has no shortage of popular and mature mocking frameworks: JMock , EasyMock , Mockito , to name just a few.

We hope that by the end of this chapter, you will agree that we have achieved these goals. Mock objects are created with the MockingApi. Mock method.

Mock objects literally implement or, in the case of a class, extend the type they stand in for.

In other words, in our example subscriber is-a Subscriber. Hence it can be passed to statically typed Java code that expects this type.

Like Mockito, we firmly believe that a mocking framework should be lenient by default. Conversely, mocking frameworks like EasyMock and JMock are strict by default, and throw an exception for every unexpected method call.

While strictness enforces rigor, it can also lead to over-specification, resulting in brittle tests that fail with every other internal code change.

Initially, mock objects have no behavior. An exception are the Object. This default behavior is overridable by stubbing the methods, which we will learn about in the Stubbing section.

After creating the publisher and its subscribers, we need to make the latter known to the former:. Mocking is the act of describing mandatory interactions between the object under specification and its collaborators.

Here is an example:. Read out aloud: "When the publisher sends a 'hello' message, then both subscribers should receive that message exactly once.

When this feature method gets run, all invocations on mock objects that occur while executing the when block will be matched against the interactions described in the then: block.

This verification happens automatically and does not require any additional code. Not quite. While an interaction looks similar to a regular method invocation, it is simply a way to express which method invocations are expected to occur.

A good way to think of an interaction is as a regular expression that all incoming invocations on mock objects are matched against.

Depending on the circumstances, the interaction may match zero, one, or multiple invocations. It contains two interactions , each of which has four distinct parts: a cardinality , a target constraint , a method constraint , and an argument constraint :.

The cardinality of an interaction describes how often a method call is expected. It can either be a fixed number or a range:. The target constraint of an interaction describes which mock object is expected to receive the method call:.

When expecting a call to a getter method, Groovy property syntax can be used instead of method syntax:.

When dealing with vararg methods, vararg syntax can also be used in the corresponding interactions:. Groovy allows any method whose last parameter has an array type to be called in vararg style.

Consequently, vararg syntax can also be used in interactions matching such methods. The equality constraint uses groovy equality to check the argument, i.

You can use. A variation of the equality constraint, if the constraint object is a Hamcrest matcher, then it will use that matcher to check the argument.

The wildcard constraint will match any argument null or otherwise. The code constraint is the most versatile of all. It is a groovy closure that gets the argument as its parameter.

The closure is treated as an condition block, so it behaves like a then block, i. It can emulate all but the spread wildcard constraint, however it is suggested to use the simpler constraints where possible.

The negating constraint! It inverts the result of the nested constraint, e. Although it can be combined with any other constraint it does not always make sense, e.

Also keep in mind that the diagnostics for a non matching negating constraint will just be that the inner constraint did match, without any more information.

Now, when would matching any method call be useful? A good example is strict mocking , a style of mocking where no interactions other than those explicitly declared are allowed:.

So far, we declared all our interactions in a then: block. This often results in a spec that reads naturally.

However, it is also permissible to put interactions anywhere before the when: block that is supposed to satisfy them. In particular, this means that interactions can be declared in a setup method.

Interactions can also be declared in any "helper" instance method of the same specification class. When an invocation on a mock object occurs, it is matched against interactions in the interactions' declared order.

There is one exception to this rule: Interactions declared in a then: block are matched against before any other interactions. This allows to override interactions declared in, say, a setup method with interactions declared in a then: block.

In other words, what makes an expression an interaction declaration, rather than, say, a regular method call? Such an expression would have little to no value in statement position, so changing its meaning works out fine.

Note how the operations correspond to the syntax for declaring a cardinality when mocking or a response generator when stubbing. Either of them must always be present; foo.

This feature is particularly attractive for Stubbing and with dedicated Stubs. Interactions sharing the same target can be grouped in a Specification.

Similar to Declaring Interactions at Mock Creation Time , this makes it unnecessary to repeat the target constraint:. A then: block may contain both interactions and conditions.

Although not strictly required, it is customary to declare interactions before conditions:. Internally, Spock must have full information about expected interactions before they take place.

So how is it possible for interactions to be declared in a then: block? The answer is that under the hood, Spock moves interactions declared in a then: block to immediately before the preceding when: block.

In most cases this works out just fine, but sometimes it can lead to problems:. Here we have introduced a variable for the expected argument.

Likewise, we could have introduced a variable for the cardinality. Hence it will just move the interaction, which will cause a MissingPropertyException at runtime.

One way to solve this problem is to move at least the variable declaration to before the when: block. Fans of Data Driven Testing might move the variable into a where: block.

In our example, this would have the added benefit that we could use the same variable for sending the message. Another solution is to be explicit about the fact that variable declaration and interaction belong together:.

Since an MockingApi. Interactions declared in a then: block are scoped to the preceding when: block:. This makes sure that subscriber receives "message1" during execution of the first when: block, and "message2" during execution of the second when: block.

Interactions declared outside a then: block are active from their declaration until the end of the containing feature method.

Interactions are always scoped to a particular feature method. Hence they cannot be declared in a static method, setupSpec method, or cleanupSpec method.

Likewise, mock objects should not be stored in static or Shared fields. There are two main ways in which a mock-based test can fail: An interaction can match more invocations than allowed, or it can match fewer invocations than required.

The former case is detected right when the invocation happens, and causes a TooManyInvocationsError :.

To make it easier to diagnose why too many invocations matched, Spock will show all invocations matching the interaction in question:.

According to this output, one of the receive "hello" calls triggered the TooManyInvocationsError. Note that because indistinguishable calls like the two invocations of subscriber.

The second case fewer invocations than required can only be detected once execution of the when block has completed.

Until then, further invocations may still occur. It causes a TooFewInvocationsError :. To avoid over-specification, Spock defaults to allowing any invocation order, provided that the specified interactions are eventually satisfied:.

Here, any of the invocation sequences "hello" "hello" "goodbye" , "hello" "goodbye" "hello" , and "goodbye" "hello" "hello" will satisfy the specified interactions.

In those cases where invocation order matters, you can impose an order by splitting up interactions into multiple then: blocks:. Now Spock will verify that both "hello" 's are received before the "goodbye".

In other words, invocation order is enforced between but not within then: blocks. Besides interfaces, Spock also supports mocking of classes.

Mocking classes works just like mocking interfaces; the only additional requirement is to put cglib-nodep If either of these libraries is missing from the class path, Spock will gently let you know.

Stubbing is the act of making collaborators respond to method calls in a certain way. Read out aloud: " Whenever the subscriber receives a message, make it respond with 'ok'.

Compared to a mocked interaction, a stubbed interaction has no cardinality on the left end, but adds a response generator on the right end:.

A stubbed interaction can be declared in the usual places: either inside a then: block, or anywhere before a when: block. See Where to Declare Interactions for the details.

This will return "ok" whenever "message1" is received, and "fail" whenever "message2" is received. This will return "ok" for the first invocation, "error" for the second and third invocation, and "ok" for all remaining invocations.

Here "ok" gets returned if the message is more than three characters long, and "fail" otherwise. If the closure declares more than one parameter or a single typed parameter, method arguments will be mapped one-by-one to closure parameters: [ 6 ].

If you find yourself in need of more information about a method invocation than its arguments, have a look at org. All methods declared in this interface are available inside the closure, without a need to prefix them.

In Groovy terminology, the closure delegates to an instance of IMockInvocation. Sometimes you may want to do more than just computing a return value.

A typical example is throwing an exception. Again, closures come to the rescue:. Of course, the closure can contain more code, for example a println statement.

It will get executed every time an incoming invocation matches the interaction. This will return "ok", "fail", "ok" for the first three invocations, throw InternalError for the fourth invocations, and return ok for any further invocation.

When mocking and stubbing the same method call, they have to happen in the same interaction. In particular, the following Mockito-style splitting of stubbing and mocking into two separate statements will not work:.

As explained in Where to Declare Interactions , the receive call will first get matched against the interaction in the then: block. Hence, the interaction in the given: block will never get a chance to match.

So far, we have created mock objects with the MockingApi. What the Spock is this? Online dispute resolution used to be tedious, so I made this.

How to play Send the link above to your frenemy. Wait here for them to show up. The game begins automatically when your friend arrives.

Get a room! Other stuff you should know All rooms have a two-player limit. You'll get booted into a new game if you visit a room that's full.

You can play yourself by opening two browser windows. It's not as fun as it sounds. To chat or report bugs, I'm nickcernis on twitter and nick cern.

Each Spec file can contain multiple tests similar to a JUnit test class file and each test can optionally contain the BDD blocks i. This is similar to other BDD frameworks, where each of these sections can be correlated to Arrange, Act and Assert sections in the JUnit tests respectively.

These are plain English strings and this makes the test names quite readable and gives a real sense to test as to what it achieves.

Out of these look at the then or assert block which implies equality assertion and avoids all boilerplate code associated with assertions. Example , An assertion in JUnit would have looked as shown below:.

As you can see from the above, the Spock tests make the tests look less verbose as well as avoid all boilerplate code in assertions and setup, etc.

This is helpful for providing a more verbose structure to the test. It can be used to assert pre-conditions even before when and then blocks and can be used multiple times in a test.

As shown above, the expect block is trying to assert the class value of the input fields as well as the value of one of the inputs to lie within the range.

In this Spock tutorial, we have covered the basics of Groovy programming language, along with the anatomy or basic building blocks of a Spock Specification.

We created a sample project with the required dependencies in order to write groovy based Spock specifications and wrote a sample specification.

In the other tutorials in this series, we will delve deeper into the features provided by the Spock framework and get to know how they make use of groovy language to create clean, and readable test specifications.

Stay tuned to our upcoming Spock tutorials to know more about Test fixtures, Assertions and Reporting in Spock.

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A stubbed interaction can be declared in the usual places: either inside a then: block, or anywhere before a when: block.

See Where to Declare Interactions for the details. This will return "ok" whenever "message1" is received, and "fail" whenever "message2" is received.

This will return "ok" for the first invocation, "error" for the second and third invocation, and "ok" for all remaining invocations.

Here "ok" gets returned if the message is more than three characters long, and "fail" otherwise.

If the closure declares more than one parameter or a single typed parameter, method arguments will be mapped one-by-one to closure parameters: [ 6 ].

If you find yourself in need of more information about a method invocation than its arguments, have a look at org. All methods declared in this interface are available inside the closure, without a need to prefix them.

In Groovy terminology, the closure delegates to an instance of IMockInvocation. Sometimes you may want to do more than just computing a return value.

A typical example is throwing an exception. Again, closures come to the rescue:. Of course, the closure can contain more code, for example a println statement.

It will get executed every time an incoming invocation matches the interaction. This will return "ok", "fail", "ok" for the first three invocations, throw InternalError for the fourth invocations, and return ok for any further invocation.

When mocking and stubbing the same method call, they have to happen in the same interaction. In particular, the following Mockito-style splitting of stubbing and mocking into two separate statements will not work:.

As explained in Where to Declare Interactions , the receive call will first get matched against the interaction in the then: block.

Hence, the interaction in the given: block will never get a chance to match. So far, we have created mock objects with the MockingApi.

Aside from this method, the MockingApi class provides a couple of other factory methods for creating more specialized kinds of mock objects.

Whereas a mock can be used both for stubbing and mocking, a stub can only be used for stubbing. Limiting a collaborator to a stub communicates its role to the readers of the specification.

Like a mock, a stub allows unexpected invocations. However, the values returned by a stub in such cases are more ambitious:.

For non-numerical values, an "empty" or "dummy" object is returned. This could mean an empty String, an empty collection, an object constructed from its default constructor, or another stub returning default values.

See class org. EmptyOrDummyResponse for the details. A stub often has a fixed set of interactions, which makes declaring interactions at mock creation time particularly attractive:.

Think twice before using this feature. It might be better to change the design of the code under specification. A spy is always based on a real object.

Hence you must provide a class type rather than an interface type, along with any constructor arguments for the type. You may also create a spy from an instantiated object.

This may be useful in cases where you do not have full control over the instatiation of types you are interested in spying.

For example when testing within a Dependency Injection framework such as Spring or Guice. Method calls on a spy are automatically delegated to the real object.

After creating a spy, you can listen in on the conversation between the caller and the real object underlying the spy:. Apart from making sure that receive gets called exactly once, the conversation between the publisher and the SubscriberImpl instance underlying the spy remains unaltered.

Instead of calling SubscriberImpl. Here we use callRealMethod to delegate the method invocation to the real object.

If we had wanted to pass a different message to the real method, we could have used callRealMethodWithArgs "changed message". So far, all the mocking features we have seen work the same no matter if the calling code is written in Java or Groovy.

They are created with the MockingApi. GroovyMock , MockingApi. GroovyStub , and MockingApi. GroovySpy factory methods. All Groovy mocks implement the GroovyObject interface.

They support the mocking and stubbing of dynamic methods as if they were physically declared methods:. Usually, Groovy mocks need to be injected into the code under specification just like regular mocks.

However, when a Groovy mock is created as global , it automagically replaces all real instances of the mocked type for the duration of the feature method: [ 7 ].

Here, we set up the publisher with two instances of a real subscriber implementation. Then we create a global mock of the same type.

This reroutes all method calls on the real subscribers to the mock object. This leads to the real code getting executed unless an interaction matches, allowing you to selectively listen in on objects and change their behavior just where needed.

Global Groovy mocks get their super powers from Groovy meta-programming. To be more precise, every globally mocked type is assigned a custom meta class for the duration of the feature method.

Since a global Groovy mock is still based on a CGLIB proxy, it will retain its general mocking capabilities but not its super powers when called from Java code.

Since we are using a spy, the object returned from the constructor call remains unchanged. To change which object gets constructed, we can stub the constructor:.

In such a case one can just write:. At the end of the day, the Mock , Stub , and Spy factory methods are just canned ways to create mock objects with a certain configuration.

IMockConfiguration interface. All properties of this interface [ 8 ] can be passed as named arguments to the Mock method. For example:. Instead of passing ZeroOrNullResponse , we could have supplied our own custom org.

IDefaultResponse for responding to unexpected method invocations. To find out whether a particular object is a Spock mock object, use a org.

MockUtil :. If you would like to dive deeper into interaction-based testing, we recommend the following resources:. TDD pioneers Steve Freeman and Nat Pryce explain in detail how test-driven development and mocking work in the real world.

Some extensions can be configured with options in a Spock configuration file. The description for each extension will mention how it can be configured.

All those configurations are in a Groovy file that usually is called SpockConfig. Spock first searches for a custom location given in a system property called spock.

Next it searches for the SpockConfig. If there is also no such file, you can at last have a SpockConfig. This by default is the directory.

You can configure Spock whether it should filter stack traces or not by using the configuration file. The default value is true.

In other words, they are triggered by annotating a spec class or method with a certain annotation. You can tell such an annotation by its ExtensionAnnotation meta-annotation.

To temporarily prevent a feature method from getting executed, annotate it with spock. Ignore :. Care should be taken when ignoring feature methods in a spec class annotated with spock.

Stepwise since later feature methods may depend on earlier feature methods having executed. To ignore all but a typically small subset of methods, annotate the latter with spock.

IgnoreRest :. To ignore a feature method under certain conditions, annotate it with spock. IgnoreIf , followed by a predicate:.

To make predicates easier to read and write, the following properties are available inside the closure:. To execute a feature method under certain conditions, annotate it with spock.

Requires , followed by a predicate:. Requires works exactly like IgnoreIf , except that the predicate is inverted.

In general, it is preferable to state the conditions under which a method gets executed, rather than the conditions under which it gets ignored.

To indicate that the feature is not fully implemented yet and should not be reported as error, annotate it with spock. The use case is to annotate tests that can not yet run but should already be committed.

The main difference to Ignore is that the test are executed, but test failures are ignored. If the test passes without an error, then it will be reported as failure since the PendingFeature annotation should be removed.

This way the tests will become part of the normal tests instead of being ignored forever. Groovy has the groovy. NotYetImplemented annotation which is similar but behaves a differently.

To execute features in the order that they are declared, annotate a spec class with spock. Stepwise :. Stepwise only affects the class carrying the annotation; not sub or super classes.

Features after the first failure are skipped. Stepwise does not override the behaviour of annotations such as Ignore , IgnoreRest , and IgnoreIf , so care should be taken when ignoring feature methods in spec classes annotated with Stepwise.

To fail a feature method, fixture, or class that exceeds a given execution duration, use spock. Timeout , followed by a duration, and optionally a time unit.

The default time unit is seconds. When applied to a feature method, the timeout is per execution of one iteration, excluding time spent in fixture methods:.

Applying Timeout to a spec class has the same effect as applying it to each feature that is not already annotated with Timeout , excluding time spent in fixtures:.

When a timeout is reported to the user, the stack trace shown reflects the execution stack of the test framework when the timeout was exceeded.

The Retry extensions can be used for flaky integration tests, where remote systems can fail sometimes. By default it retries an iteration 3 times with 0 delay if either an Exception or AssertionError has been thrown, all this is configurable.

In addition, an optional condition closure can be used to determine if a feature should be retried. It also provides special support for data driven features, offering to either retry all iterations or just the failing ones.

If so, the retries defined in the subclass are applied to all feature methods declared in the subclass as well as inherited ones.

Given the following example, running FooIntegrationSpec will execute both inherited and foo with one retry. Running BarIntegrationSpec will execute inherited and bar with two retries.

Check RetryFeatureExtensionSpec for more examples. To activate one or more Groovy categories within the scope of a feature method or spec, use spock.

Use :. This can be useful for stubbing of dynamic methods, which are usually provided by the runtime environment e. It has no effect when applied to a helper method.

However, when applied to a spec class, it will also affect its helper methods. To confine meta class changes to the scope of a feature method or spec class, use spock.

ConfineMetaClassChanges :. When applied to a spec class, the meta classes are restored to the state that they were in before setupSpec was executed, after cleanupSpec is executed.

When applied to a feature method, the meta classes are restored to as they were after setup was executed, before cleanup is executed.

Saves system properties before the annotated feature method including any setup and cleanup methods gets run, and restores them afterwards. Applying this annotation to a spec class has the same effect as applying it to all its feature methods.

Automatically attaches a detached mock to the current Specification. Use this if there is no direct framework support available.

Spring and Guice dependency injection is automatically handled by the Spring Module and Guice Module respectively. Automatically clean up a field or property at the end of its lifetime by using spock.

By default, an object is cleaned up by invoking its parameterless close method. If a cleanup operation fails with an exception, the exception is reported by default, and cleanup proceeds with the next annotated object.

Similarly, to attach a natural-language description to a spec, use spock. Narrative :. To link to one or more references to external information related to a specification or feature, use spock.

See :. To indicate that a feature or spec relates to one or more issues in an external tracking system, use spock. Issue :. If you have a common prefix URL for all issues in a project, you can use the Spock Configuration File to set it up for all at once.

If it is set, it is prepended to the value of the Issue annotation when building the URL. If the issueNamePrefix is set, it is prepended to the value of the Issue annotation when building the name for the issue.

Spock understands org. Rule annotations on non- Shared instance fields. The according rules are run at the iteration interception point in the Spock lifecycle.

This means that the rules before-actions are done before the execution of setup methods and the after-actions are done after the execution of cleanup methods.

ClassRule annotations on Shared fields. The according rules are run at the specification interception point in the Spock lifecycle.

This means that the rules before-actions are done before the execution of setupSpec methods and the after-actions are done after the execution of cleanupSpec methods.

Spock is capable of including and excluding specifications according to their classes, super-classes and interfaces and according to annotations that are applied to the specification.

Spock is also capable of including and excluding individual features according to annotations that are applied to the feature method. The configuration for what to include or exclude is done according to the Spock Configuration File section.

Spock can remember which features last failed and how often successively and also how long a feature needed to be tested. For successive runs Spock will then first run features that failed at last run and first features that failed more often successively.

Within the previously failed or non-failed features Spock will run the fastest tests first. This behaviour can be enabled according to the Spock Configuration File section.

The default value is false. Spock can create a report log of the executed tests in JSON format. This report contains also things like Title , Narrative , See and Issue values or block descriptors.

This report can be enabled according to the Spock Configuration File section. The default is to not generate this report.

For the report to be generated, you have to enable it and set at least the logFileDir and logFileName. If a logFileSuffix is set or the system property spock.

If the suffix contains the string timestamp , this is replaced by the current date and time in UTC automatically. If you instead want to have your local date and time, you can use the setting from the example below.

You can find a list of third-party extensions in the Spock Wiki. There are two types of extensions that can be created for usage with Spock. These are global extensions and annotation driven local extensions.

For both extension types you implement a specific interface which defines some callback methods. In your implementation of those methods you can set up the magic of your extension, for example by adding interceptors to various interception points that are described below.

Which type of annotation you create depends on your use case. If you want to do something once during the Spock run - at the start or end - or want to apply something to all executed specifications without the user of the extension having to do anything besides including your extension in the classpath, then you should opt for a global extension.

If you instead want to apply your magic only by choice of the user, then you should implement an annotation driven local extension.

IGlobalExtension in the class path. As soon as these two conditions are satisfied, the extension is automatically loaded and used when Spock is running.

For convenience there is also the class AbstractGlobalExtension , which provides empty implementations for all methods in the interface, so that only the needed ones need to be overridden.

This is called once for each specification. In this method you can prepare a specification with your extension magic, like attaching interceptors to various interception points as described in the chapter Interceptors.

To create an annotation driven local extension you need to create a class that implements the interface IAnnotationDrivenExtension. Of course the annotation class can have some attributes with which the user can further configure the behaviour of the extension for each annotation application.

For convenience there is also the class AbstractAnnotationDrivenExtension , which provides empty implementations for all methods in the interface, so that only the needed ones need to be overridden.

Your annotation can be applied to a specification, a feature method, a fixture method or a field. On all other places like helper methods or other places if the Target is set accordingly, the annotation will be ignored and has no effect other than being visible in the source code.

IAnnotationDrivenExtension has the following five methods, where in each you can prepare a specification with your extension magic, like attaching interceptors to various interception points as described in the chapter Interceptors :.

This is called once for each specification where the annotation is applied with the annotation instance as first parameter and the specification info object as second parameter.

This is called once for each feature method where the annotation is applied with the annotation instance as first parameter and the feature info object as second parameter.

This is called once for each fixture method where the annotation is applied with the annotation instance as first parameter and the fixture method info object as second parameter.

This is called once for each field where the annotation is applied with the annotation instance as first parameter and the field info object as second parameter.

This is called once for each specification within which the annotation is applied to at least one of the supported places like defined above.

It gets the specification info object as sole parameter. This method is called after all other methods of this interface for each applied annotation are processed.

The argument to the annotation is the name of the top-level section that is added to the Spock configuration file syntax. The default values for the configuration options are defined in the class by initializing the fields at declaration time or in the constructor.

In the Spock configuration file those values can then be edited by the user of your extension. To use the values of the configuration object in your extension, just define an uninitialized instance field of that type.

Spock will then automatically create exactly one instance of the configuration object per Spock run, apply the settings from the configuration file to it before the start methods of global extensions are called and inject that instance into the extension class instances.

A configuration object cannot be used exclusively in an annotation driven local extension, but it has to be used in at least one global extension to properly get initialized and populated with the settings from the configuration file.

But if the configuration object is used in a global extension, you can also use it just fine in an annotation driven local extension.

If the configuration object is only used in an annotation driven local extension, you will get an exception when then configuration object is to be injected into the extension and you will also get an error when the configuration file is evaluated and it contains the section, as the configuration object is not properly registered yet.

For applying the magic of your extension, there are various interception points, where you can attach interceptors from the extension methods described above to hook into the Spock lifecycle.

For each interception point there can of course be multiple interceptors added by arbitrary Spock extensions shipped or 3rd party.

Their order is currently depending on the order they are added, but there should not be made any order assumptions within one interception point.

An ellipsis in the figure means that the block before it can be repeated an arbitrary amount of times. The difference between shared initializer interceptor and shared initializer method interceptor and between initializer interceptor and initializer method interceptor - as there can be at most one of those methods each - is, that there are only the two methods if there are Shared , respectively non- Shared , fields that get values assigned at declaration time.

The compiler will put those initializations in a generated method and call it at the proper place in the lifecycle.

So if there are no such initializations, no method is generated and thus the method interceptor is never called. The non-method interceptors are always called at the proper place in the lifecycle to do work that has to be done at that time.

To create an interceptor to be attached to an interception point, you need to create a class that implements the interface IMethodInterceptor.

This interface has the sole method intercept IMethodInvocation invocation. The invocation parameter can be used to get and modify the current state of execution.

Each interceptor must call the method invocation. But this should be a very rare use case. If you write an interceptor that can be used at different interception points and should do different work at different interception points, there is also the convenience class AbstractMethodInterceptor , which you can extend and which provides various methods for overriding that are called for the various interception points.

Most of these methods have a double meaning, like interceptSetupMethod which is called for the setup interceptor and the setup method interceptor.

If you attach your interceptor to both of them and need a differentiation, you can check for invocation. Alternatively you can of course build two different interceptors or add a parameter to your interceptor and create two instances, telling each at addition time whether it is attached to the method interceptor or the other one.

If your interceptor should support custom method parameters for wrapped methods, this can be done by modifying invocation.

Two use cases for this would be a mocking framework that can inject method parameters that are annotated with a special annotation or some test helper that injects objects of a specific type that are created and prepared for usage automatically.

So if you for example investigated the method parameters with invocation. If not, you should assign it a new array that is at least five elements long and copy the contents of the old array into the new one.

Then you can assign your objects to be injected. When using data driven features methods with a where: block , the user of your extension has to follow some restrictions, if parameters should be injected by your extension:.

Integration with the Guice IoC container. For examples see the specs in the codebase. With Spock 1. It supports the following spring annotations ContextConfiguration and ContextHierarchy.

Spock 1. It does not require any Spring Boot dependencies, however it requires Spring Framework 4. You can even use the initializer blocks to define common behavior, however they are only picked up once they are attached to the Specification.

SpringBean definitions can replace existing Beans in your ApplicationContext. If you want to spy on an existing bean, you can use the SpringSpy annotation to wrap the bean in a spy.

As with SpringBean the field must be of the type you want to spy on, however you cannot use an initializer. StubBeans registers plain Stub instances in an ApplicationContext.

Use this if you just need to satisfy some dependencies without actually doing anything with these stubs. If you need to control the stubs, e.

StubBeans can be replaced by SpringBean , this can be useful if you need to replace some StubBeans defined in a parent class. Alternatively you can use an embedded config annotated with TestConfiguration and to create the mocks using the DetachedMockFactory.

For more examples see the specs in the codebase and boot examples. Spock ignores bean that is not a singleton in the singleton scope by default.

To enable mocks to work for scoped beans you need to add ScanScopedBeans to the spec and make sure that the scope allows access to the bean during the setup phase.

You can limit the scanning to certain scopes by using the value property of ScanScopedBeans. Integration with the Tapestry5 IoC container. Integration with the Unitils library.

The Grails plugin has moved to its own GitHub project. The theme for this release is to increase the information that is provided when an assertion failed.

Before this release the code argument constrains worked by returning a boolean result. This was fine if you just wanted to do a simple comparison, but it breaks down if you need to do 5 comparisons.

With 1. If you used the code argument constraint as a way of capturing the argument value, then this will most likely not work anymore, since assignments to already declared variables are forbidden in implicit assertion block.

If you still need access to the argument, you can use the response generator closure instead. The added benefit of this changes is, that it clearly differentiates the condition from the capture.

If you relied on this behavior to hide some output, or to prevent a stack overflow due to a self referenceing data structure, then you need to move the condition into a separate method that just returns the boolean result.

Improve render otherwise irrelevant expressions if they get a type hint in comparison failure Fix do not convert implicit "this" expression like when calling the constructor of a non-static inner class Add flag to UnrollNameProvider to assert unroll expressions set the system property spock.

Add configurable condition to Retry extension to allow for customizing when retries should be attempted Docs. Improve PendingFeature to now have an optional reason attribute Improve Retry to be declarable on a spec class which will apply it to all feature methods in that class and subclasses Docs.

Improve StepwiseExtension mark only subsequent features as skipped in case of failure Improve in assertions Spock now uses DefaultGroovyMethods.

Improve reporting of exceptions during cleanup, they are now properly reported as suppressed exceptions instead of hiding the real exception.

Improve default responses for stubs, Java 8 types like Optional and Streams now return empty, CompleteableFuture completes with null result.

Improve support for builder pattern, stubs now return themselves if the return type matches the type of the stub.

Improve constructorArgs for spies can now accept a map directly without the need to wrap it in a list.

Fix use String renderer for Class instances Fix mark new Spring extensions as Beta Fix exclude groovy-groovysh from compile dependencies Fix Retry.

Fix issue with SpringBean mocks throwing InvocationTargetException instead of actual declared exceptions , Fix void methods with implicit targets failing in with and verifyAll Fix Spring injection of JUnit Rules, due to the changes in 1.

Fix re-declare recorder variables , this caused annotations such as Slf4j to break Specifications. Fix assertion of mock invocation order with nested invocations Groovy 2.

Fix integer overflow that could occur when the OutOfMemoryError protection while comparing huge strings kicked in.

Improve default response for java. Known issues with groovy 2. Adds compatibility with ByteBuddy as an alternative to cglib for generating mocks and stubs for classes.

A number of excellent pull requests have been integrated into the 1. Currently some features are incubating.

We encourage users to try out these new features and provide feedback so we can finalize the content for a 1.

The verifyAll method can be used to assert multiple boolean expressions without short-circuiting those after a failure.

Spy can be used to create partial mocks for Java 8 interfaces with default methods just as it can for abstract classes.

A new PendingFeature annotation to distinguish incomplete functionality from features with Ignore. No ground-breaking new features, but significant improvements and fixes across the board.

Generated with Asciidoctor what else? Maven plugin removed. Official support for Java 1. Make sure to pick the groovy Improved infrastructure to allow for easier community involvement: Switch to GitHub issue tracker , Windows and Linux CI builds, pull requests automatically tested, all development on master branch bye-bye groovy-x.

Check out the upcoming Java Testing with Spock book from Manning. Another big focus will be to better involve the community and their valuable contributions.

Last but not least, we are finally shooting for a professional logo and website. Stay tuned for announcements! Create a example which uses ConfineMetaClassChanges.

Mistakes in PollingConditions sphinx docs. Data values in where-block are not resolved in nested closures. Provide a Specification. Problem with array arguments to mock methods.

Inject and InjectService. Compilation error when using multi assignment. Better generics support for mocks and stubs.

Multiple Assignment in when: and anything in cleanup:. Release binary variants for Groovy 2. Port reference documentation to Asciidoc.

Minor documentation corrections: spelling, code examples. Add groovy console support for the specs project, to ease debugging of the AST.

Spock Subjects-Collaborators Extension. Spock reports. Render exceptions in conditions as condition failure. Soft asserts: check all then throw all failures.

Each Spock version is documented separately e. As of Spock 0. The diagnostic message accompanying a TooManyInvocationsError has been greatly improved.

The diagnostic message accompanying a TooFewInvocationsError has been greatly improved. A stub is a restricted form of mock object that responds to invocations without ever demanding them.

Using a stub over a mock is an effective way to communicate its role to readers of the specification. A spy sits atop a real object, in this example an instance of class Person.

This allows to listen in on and selectively change the behavior of the real object. Furthermore, spies can be used as partial mocks.

A Groovy mock automatically implements groovy. It allows stubbing and mocking of dynamic methods just like for statically declared methods.

When a Groovy mock is called from Java rather than Groovy code, it behaves like a regular mock. A global mock can only be created for a class type.

It effectively replaces all instances of that type and makes them amenable to stubbing and mocking. PollingConditions joins AsyncConditions and BlockingVariable s as another utility for testing asynchronous code:.

The descriptor is automatically detected and activated by the IDE. DSL support is activated for Groovy Eclipse 2. If necessary, it can be deactivated in the Groovy Eclipse preferences.

Parts of class spock. Specification were pulled up into two new super classes: spock. MockingApi now contains all mocking-related methods, and org.

Instead of just passing through exceptions, Specification. Class spock. HamcrestSupport has a new expect method that makes Hamcrest assertions read better in then-blocks:.

Recently introduced classes and methods may be annotated with Beta , as a sign that they may still undergo incompatible changes.

This gives us a chance to incorporate valuable feedback from our users. Yes, we need your feedback! Typically, a Beta annotation is removed within one or two releases.

See the issue tracker for a list of fixed issues. Multiple result declarations can be chained. The following causes method bar to throw an IOException when first called, return the numbers one, two, and three on the next calls, and throw a RuntimeException for all subsequent calls:.

Method arguments can now be constrained with Hamcrest matchers:. In addition to rules implementing org. MethodRule which has been deprecated in JUnit 4.

TestRule interface. Also supported is the new ClassRule annotation. Rule declarations are now verified and can leave off the initialization part.

I that case Spock will automatically initialize the rule by calling the default constructor. The TestName rule, and rules in general, now honor the Unroll annotation and any defined naming pattern.

This was particularly needed for Grails 2. Thanks to a contribution from Howard Lewis Ship , the Tapestry module is now compatible with Tapestry 5.

Older 5. AssumptionViolatedException is now recognized and handled as known from JUnit. Unrolled methods no longer cause "yellow" nodes in IDEs. The Unroll naming pattern can now be provided in the method name, instead of as an argument to the annotation:.

The Unroll annotation can now be applied to a spec class. In this case, all data-driven feature methods in the class will be unrolled.

The Timeout annotation can now be applied to a spec class. Timed methods are now executed on the regular test framework thread. This can be important for tests that rely on thread-local state like Grails integration tests.

Also the interruption behavior has been improved, to increase the chance that a timeout can be enforced. Table cells can now be separated with double pipes.

This can be used to visually set apart expected outputs from provided inputs:. Spock 0. Make sure to pick the right version - for example, for Groovy 1.

The Groovy 2. The Groovy 1. The next version of Spock will no longer support Groovy 1. The plugin supports both Grails 1.

The Spock Grails plugin supports all of the new Grails 2. For integration testing, IntegrationSpec must still be used. The folks from JetBrains have added a few handy features around data tables.

Data tables will now be layed out automatically when reformatting code. Data variables are no longer shown as "unknown" and have their types inferred from the values in the table!

Also available are slides and code for various Spock presentations such as this one. Spock is now exclusively built with Gradle.

Building Spock yourself is as easy as cloning the Github repo and executing gradlew build. No build tool installation is required; the only prerequisite for building Spock is a JDK installation 1.

This page explains incompatible changes between successive versions and provides suggestions on how to deal with them.

Specs, Spec base classes and third-party extensions may have be recompiled in order to work with Spock 1.

Make sure to pick the right binaries for your Groovy version of choice: groovy Client code must be recompiled in order to work with Spock 0.

This includes third-party Spock extensions and base classes. In other words, field initializers were executed right before the setup method in the same class.

As a result of this change, the following will no longer work:. To overcome this problem, you can either use a field initializer for base , or move the assignment of derived into a setup method.

See Improved Unroll for recent improvements to that syntax. Spock offers a very neat syntax for using Hamcrest matchers:. Due to changes made between Groovy 1.

For example, the following will no longer work:. Introduction Spock is a testing and specification framework for Java and Groovy applications.

This section shows you how. Spock Web Console Spock Web Console is a website that allows you to instantly view, edit, run, and even publish Spock specifications.

Spock Primer This chapter assumes that you have a basic knowledge of Groovy and unit testing. Imports import spock. Package spock.

Invocation Order If fixture methods are overridden in a specification subclass then setup of the superclass will run before setup of the subclass.

Blocks Spock has built-in support for implementing each of the conceptual phases of a feature method. Condition not satisfied : stack. Implicit and explicit conditions Conditions are an essential ingredient of then blocks and expect blocks.

Exception Conditions Exception conditions are used to describe that a when block should throw an exception. Expect Blocks An expect block is more limited than a then block in that it may only contain conditions and variable definitions.

Where Blocks A where block always comes last in a method, and may not be repeated. Condition not satisfied : matchesPreferredConfiguration pc false Condition not satisfied : assert pc.

Using with for expectations As an alternative to the above helper methods, you can use a with target, closure method to interact on the object being verified.

Using verifyAll to assert multiple expectations together Normal expectations fail the test on the first failed assertions.

The verifyAll method can be used like with ,. Like with you can also optionally define a type hint for the IDE.

Specifications as Documentation Well-written specifications are a valuable source of information. Use the and: label to describe logically different parts of a block:.

Extensions As we have seen, Spock offers lots of functionality for writing specifications. Timeout Sets a timeout for execution of a feature or fixture method.

Ignore Ignores any feature method carrying this annotation. IgnoreRest Any feature method carrying this annotation will be executed, all others will be ignored.

FailsWith Expects a feature method to complete abruptly. Comparison to JUnit Although Spock uses a different terminology, many of its concepts and features are inspired by JUnit.

Data Driven Testing Oftentimes, it is useful to exercise the same test code multiple times, with varying inputs and expected results.

Introduction Suppose we want to specify the behavior of the Math. Although this approach is fine in simple cases like this one, it has some potential drawbacks:.

Code and data are mixed and cannot easily be changed independently Data cannot easily be auto-generated or fetched from external sources In order to exercise the same code multiple times, it either has to be duplicated or extracted into a separate method In case of a failure, it may not be immediately clear which inputs caused the failure Exercising the same code multiple times does not benefit from the same isolation as executing separate methods does.

Data Tables Data tables are a convenient way to exercise a feature method with a fixed set of data values:.

Data tables must have at least two columns. A single-column table can be written as:. Isolated Execution of Iterations Iterations are isolated from each other in the same way as separate feature methods.

Sharing of Objects between Iterations In order to share an object between iterations, it has to be kept in a Shared or static field. Syntactic Variations The previous code can be tweaked in a few ways.

Method Unrolling A method annotated with Unroll will have its iterations reported independently:. Multi-Variable Data Pipes If a data provider returns multiple values per iteration as an object that Groovy knows how to iterate over , it can be connected to multiple data variables simultaneously.

Data Variable Assignment A data variable can be directly assigned a value:. Combining Data Tables, Data Pipes, and Variable Assignments Data tables, data pipes, and variable assignments can be combined as needed:.

Number of Iterations The number of iterations depends on how much data is available. Closing of Data Providers After all iterations have completed, the zero-argument close method is called on all data providers that have such a method.

Expressions only support property access and zero-arg method calls. If necessary, additional data variables can be introduced to hold more complex expression:.

How Are Mock Implementations Generated? Alternatively, the following Java-like syntax is supported, which may give better IDE support:.

Default Behavior of Mock Objects Lenient vs. Strict Mocking Frameworks. Injecting Mock Objects into Code Under Specification After creating the publisher and its subscribers, we need to make the latter known to the former:.

We are now ready to describe the expected interactions between the two parties. Mocking Mocking is the act of describing mandatory interactions between the object under specification and its collaborators.

Cardinality The cardinality of an interaction describes how often a method call is expected. Target Constraint The target constraint of an interaction describes which mock object is expected to receive the method call:.

Method Constraint The method constraint of an interaction describes which method is expected to be called:. When expecting a call to a setter method, only method syntax can be used:.

Argument Constraints The argument constraints of an interaction describe which method arguments are expected:. Argument constraints work as expected for methods with multiple arguments:.

Paper disproves Spock. Spock vaporizes rock. Rock crushes scissors. Illustration, design, and code is by Nick Cernis.

Find me on twitter nickcernis or email nick cern. It's served by Netlify. Animations are powered by the GreenSock Animation Platform. Invite a friend to settle your petty dispute live over the web Send this URL to your friend, then wait here for them to show up.

What the Spock is this? Online dispute resolution used to be tedious, so I made this. How to play Send the link above to your frenemy. Wait here for them to show up.

The game begins automatically when your friend arrives. Get a room! Other stuff you should know All rooms have a two-player limit.

You'll get booted into a new game if you visit a room that's full.

When he was 19 years old he saw a documentation about Spocks ancestors disuised as a Science Fiction show on TV which reminded him of his origin. Many translated example sentences containing "Spock" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Spock und ich: Mein Freund Leonard Nimoy eBook: Shatner, William, Fisher, David, Wais, Johanna: nthproject.eu: Kindle-Shop. Spock darüber. Dieser begibt sich daraufhin zum echten Captain Kirk und spricht mit ihm. Kirk meint, dass McCoy ihn wohl hereingelegt habe. Daraufhin bittet. Er avancierte zum beliebtesten Akteur von "Star Trek". Leonard Nimoy, der die Rolle "Mr. Spock" perfektionierte, starb am Warum.

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1 Kommentare

Yozshulabar · 08.06.2020 um 07:55

Ja, mir so schien es auch.

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